Iranian Energy and Climate Policies Adaptation to the Kyoto Protocol

Document Type: Original Research Paper


Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran


The aim of this paper is to assess the adaptation of Iran’s energy policies to the Kyoto Protocol. In the past two decades, Iran has experienced a considerable increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; in 2013 it was the world’s ninth largest emitter. Although adapting to this protocol in Iran’s energy and climate policies seems vital and urgent, its recent status is not promising. This paper develops a model to critically assess Iran’s energy policy performance during the last 15 years after the Protocol. In this regard, a composite index is defined as a proxy of adaptation to the Kyoto Protocol targets. The proposed index is based on several indicators such as energy intensity, energy consumption growth rate, energy consumption per capita, amount of CO2 emissions, and share of the renewable energies in total primary energy supply. The indicators have been selected by expert judgment. The assessment of this composite index for 16 selected countries is discussed. The results indicate that Iran has the lowest adaptation to the Kyoto Protocol among the selected countries. Also, energy intensity and CO2 emission indicators are the most important factors in realizing the adaptation to the Kyoto Protocol targets.