Concentrations and Health Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals in Fish from the Fosu Lagoon

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2 Ghana Standards Authority, P. O. Box MB 245, Accra, Ghana


Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni, Fe and Zn were determined in the muscle samples
of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the Fosu Lagoon in Cape Coast using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that, metal concentration in the fish muscle was in the order Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu > Cr. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in the fish exceeded the maximum tolerable limit set by the European Union. Although the mean concentrations of some metals exceeded this limit, their estimated daily intakes were below their oral reference dose recommended by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk assessment of consumers from the intake of metal contaminated in the muscle of S. melanotheron from the lagoon was evaluated by using Health Risk Index (HRI) calculations. In this study, the total HRI through consumption of fish calculated by adding the individual HRIs was less than 1, indicating that there is no significant potential health risk associated with the consumption of fish from the Fosu Lagoon.