Effects of Heavy Metals from Petroleum Pollutions on Carbonate Surface Sediments of the Persian Gulf

Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Marine Geology Management, Geological Survey Organization of Iran, Tehran, Iran

2 Research Institute for Earth Sciences, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Persian Gulf is a tectonic intra-continental sediment basin in which 40% of global oil and gas
trade carries out and is a rich oil and gas resource. Persian Gulf area is about 236000km2 that is one of the
largest marine habitats including corals, sponges, crabs, fishes, clams, scaphpoodas, cephalopodas, foraminiferas, echinodermatas, ostracodas and bryozoas. some of them live in seabed sediments of Persian Gulf and their footprints of are still available and visible on the sediments. This study aimed to identify the effects of oil filters, drilling platforms and ship traffics on seabed sediments. we used 240 surface sediment, Sampled Sea cruise named (MG-2008-PG Cruise) within six fractions and sedimentary components were studied during morphoscopic and morphometric tests by Binocular Microscope as well as Electron Microscope in some cases. Chemical synthesis carried out with chemical analysis with ICP instrument and organic material proportion determination by Rock-Eval device. Results indicate that the effect of pollution in Persian Gulf has endangered fauna environments and absorption by shells has changed skin color to red, grey, and black. Some shells have deformed and lost their ornament. In addition, pollution has led to change the color of ooids. It identified that black color was due to existence of hydrous iron sulfide, organic materials, and oil pollutants. the source of elements could rather be from organic sources such as oil.

Keywords