Assessing HumanHealth Risk ofMetalAccumulations in a wild carp fish from Selected Sites of a RiverLoaded withMunicipal and IndustrialWastes

Document Type : Original Research Paper



This 4x2 factorial study compared the effect of four sites (A=Siphon as upstream, and
B=Shahdera, C=Sunder and D= Balloki as 3 downstream sites) during low and high flow seasons of river Ravi
on metal cconcentrations in muscles from Cirrhinus (C) mrigala, a bottom feeder carp. While weight and
length of studied specimens did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Overall metal accumulations appeared in the
order of calcium (Ca) > sodium (Na) > potassium (K) > magnesium (Mg) > zinc (Zn) > iron (Fe) > manganese
(Mn) > copper (Cu) > chromium (Cr) > lead (Pb) > nickel (Ni) > cadmium (Cd). The sampling sites were
significantly different (P<0.001) for all the metals except Mg. The metal accumulation pattern for sites was C
> B > D > A, except Mg, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and Fe. The macro metal contents, except K and trace metals except
Cd were significantly higher during low flow than the high flow season. The bioaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Mn
were greater than those permissible for human consumption by the WHO standards. The most alarming
results contradict the views of local fish consumers that riverine fish are more healthy and valuable than the
pond fish. This fish species inhabiting the downstream sites was more polluted and may be a source of risk to
consumer health. Regular monitoring is obligatory to evaluate eco-health of the river Ravi by choosing perhaps
C. mrigala as a bio-indicator which might provide reliable measurements to frequently assess environmental
quality of rivers.