Identification of Inlet and Outlet Locations for Cool Seawater Discharges from an LNG Facility

Document Type: Original Research Paper


Environmental Systems Design and Modeling Division, CSIR - National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur 40020, India


Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and advection-dispersion simulations were carried out to
identify the appropriate locations of inlet and outlet for cool seawater discharges from the proposed Liquefied
Natural Gas (LNG) terminal using MIKE-21 suites of software. The model simulations were validated by
comparing the observed and simulated hydrodynamics in terms of water depths, current speeds and directions.
The model is satisfactorily correlated with coefficients 0.98, 0.86 and 0.91 for water depth, current speed and
direction, respectively. The validated model was extended to predict the advection-dispersion phenomena for
the two scenarios based on positions of inlet and outlet and their discharges. The predicted results of cool
water discharges were compared to the existing Environmental Health and Safety, World Bank guidelines for
LNG discharge facilities. It was observed that a trade-off is required before taking engineering decisions for
selecting an environmentally acceptable and energy efficient option for such cool water discharges from an
LNG facility.